If all houses in Australia were physically picked up, and then put down again facing at exactly the optimum or correct angle in relation to the sun, so when it gets very hot, the house will be as cool as possible, and when it gets cold, the sun could warm the building in the most optimum way, Australia's household energy bill could be reduced by 80%.
Australia could further reduce its waste of energy consumption by introducing insulation under roofs, in wall cavities, and in other ways to protect the inside of the houses from the summer heat.
In other areas of Australia, where it is colder, the insulation could provide further protection from the cold. Windows with calculated dimensions could catch the winter sun, and block the summer sun, which shines at another angle.
We call this technique 'solar efficient' or 'energy efficient' or 'passive solar design' building techniques. We can also call this in more scientific terms sustainable technology.
The image above on this page shows Ryan House, designed by Tony Trobe of TT architects in Canberra. It is a passive solar dwelling. A worldwide listing of solar passive design architects and consultants is on a website here.
It follows from Project SafeCom's commitment to its objectives, that we are committed to sustainability in the broadest sense of the word. Exploring sustainable building technology is a direct result of our vision.
Project: Environmental Showcase Home
Contact: Arizona Public Service (APS), Phoenix, Arizona
Location: 60th Street and Greenway Road in Northeast Phoenix
The Arizona Public Service (APS) is a utility concerned about future levels of energy consumption, water use, and waste in its service area. The Environmental Showcase Home (ESH) was born from this concern and completed in February 1995. The 2,640 square-foot home features four bedrooms, three baths, a triple garage with electric vehicle charging station, a swimming pool, and four outdoor living areas. Its average energy bill is about $30 per month using the home's 2.7-kilowatt photovoltaic system.
PHOTO: The light and airy interior of the Environmental Showcase Home in Phoenix, Arizona.
The ESH was intended as a supermarket of ideas and new building practices, not as a model home. It contains over 150 technologies, strategies, concepts and materials, many of which are redundant. For example, the ESH has three different water heating systems. This approach increases the potential to demonstrate the wide range of choices available today.
The home features mostly off-the-shelf technology and housing concepts that are appropriate for the desert climate. In a rapidly growing and competitive housing market which is often too price-sensitive to incorporate a lot of environmental features, there is evidence that the ESH has had some positive influence on local builders. Nearly every local builder has toured the home and several developers are incorporating some of the ESH's building concepts and technologies in newer developments. The home would cost an estimated $170,000 in the current housing market. However, cost comparisons to a similar conventional homes are not possible because cost and quality vary widely.
The ESH demonstrates three different heat pump applications for heating, cooling, and water heating. A stand-alone heat pump used in the home-the most efficient water heater ever made-can reduce water heating costs by up to 60 percent. Another high-efficiency, low-maintenance heat pump for space heating and cooling uses a single-speed compressor with a variable speed fan to reduce noise levels. Finally, a triple-function heat pump combines space heating, cooling, and water heating. This system is capable of using warm interior air during the hot summer months to heat water, providing low-cost hot water during the air conditioning season (usually April-September).
The ESH also features multiple zone control (four zones) using a single heat pump. Home appliances are designed to minimize radiant heat. For instance, the kitchen cooktop uses a high-frequency, electronically controlled induction coil under smooth glass to create a safe electromagnetic field for heating iron cookware. Since the cooktop itself never gets hot, the appliance does not warm up the kitchen.
The ESH uses 50 percent of the energy needed to light a typical home with standard lighting technologies. Daylighting from the clerestory windows reduces the need for artificial light and a low-heat-gain skylight (Sola-tube) helps reduce the need for electrical lighting in the entryway. Conventional incandescent lights are virtually eliminated and fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and halogen light fixtures are strategically placed to light critical areas-not the entire room. The energy-efficient features of this home would prevent 540,000 pounds of air pollution over 30 years. The ESH uses forty-two 44- by 20-inch, roof-mounted photovoltaic modules to produce a total of 2.7 KW of electricity-about half the electrical energy requirements of the home.
The ESH is oriented on an east-west axis to minimize heat gain where sun exposure is heaviest. Each window in the ESH is designed for its specific placement. Clerestory windows on the north side collect the less harsh sunlight from the exposure which provides natural light to the interior below. Fabric shade screens flanking each of these windows reflect light into the home for a more diffused, aesthetically pleasing result. Windows on the east, west, and south sides are shaded to protect from harsh sunlight. South-facing windows in the bedrooms are recessed and shaded by landscaping or overhangs. Large south-facing patio doors allow for a sweeping view of the pool area from the great room. Due to their size, the patio doors are shaded in a number of ways, including a trellis and a fabric awning system that automatically extends or retracts according to the requirement for more or less sunlight. All exterior windows are one inch thick, high-performance glass systems, with an overall R-4 insulation rating. The high-performance glass system consists of clear or tinted outer panes (depending on the exposure) and a clear inner pane with a low-emissivity coating to reflect heat.
The eight-inch, recycled-content masonry wall unit (Integra Block) used for most of the exterior walls of the ESH was selected for the special design that minimizes "thermal bridging" and which also permits more cavity space for insulation compared to conventional cement block. The block walls are injected with foam insulation to provide an excellent thermal envelope which rates an R-factor of 24 (Superlite Block Company, Phoenix).
The appliances selected for the ESH are all energy-efficient (and in some cases water-efficient) compared to standard equipment. For instance, the Amana DU7500 dishwasher saves 70 percent of the energy of standard dishwashers and uses only eight gallons of water per load, conserving 1,000 gallons of water per year over standard models. The Westinghouse LT 350R clothes washer is 33 percent more energy-efficient than standard top-loading models because the horizontal axis design uses less water; and, therefore, requires less energy to heat. This appliance could save a family of four up to 15,000 gallons of water per year compared to standard models. When all of the ESH's energy-efficient appliances are used exclusively, 770 KWh are saved over standard, inefficient appliances.
ESH features a gray water system to capture the portion of the home's waste water (about 65 percent) which does not contain organic matter. The gray water is collected in an underground storage tank and pumped to an above-ground tank, where it is then used as landscape irrigation water. Over a 30-year period, a family living in the ESH would use 2.3 million gallons less water than a family living in a conventional home.
In addition, the ESH demonstrates a rainwater harvesting system. The system captures rainwater at each corner of the house, feeds it along two gutters leading to four grated cement slabs. The rainwater then flows into a recycled plastic underground storage tank that is also used to hold the graywater.
Indoor water systems in the ESH feature low-flow shower heads, bathroom fixtures, and low-water-use toilets. For instance, the master suite bathroom shower head (made by Resources Conservation, Inc. of Connecticut) uses only 2.25 gallons per minute compared to 3 gallons per minute used by a standard shower head. The Rialto Pressure Lite toilet by Kohler also used in the master suite bathroom uses 1.6 gallons or less per flush compared to 3.5 gallons per flush for a standard toilet.
Xeriscape landscaping used at the ESH will conserve about 33 percent of the water consumption used in typical turf landscaping. Even without using the gray water for irrigation, the ESH saves 52 percent of indoor and outdoor water use of a typical residence in the area.
Every aspect of the ESH embodies the concepts of energy-, water-, and resource-efficiency without sacrificing comfort and aesthetics. The result is a home that uses 60 percent less energy and 60 percent less water than a typical energy-efficient home. In addition, resource-efficient and/or recycled products were selected whenever possible for use in the ESH. In particular, APS claims that recycled materials used in the home were readily available and often were as strong or stronger than their original counterparts.
Note: The identification of individuals, companies and products in these materials does not constitute endorsement by the CIWMB and is provided for informational purposes only. The CIWMB is distributing this information in an effort to increase public awareness and knowledge about this important topic.
The California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB), as a recipient of federal and state funds, is an equal opportunity employer/program and is subject to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). CIWMB publications are available in accessible formats upon request by calling the Public Affairs Office at (916) 341-6300. Persons with hearing impairments can reach the CIWMB through the California Relay Service, 1-800-735-2929.